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Oral mucosa is vulnerable to skin diseases, and often shows symptoms of dermatological pathologies. One of these problems is white bubbles on gums or on lips. In fact, such a phenomenon is a real cause for concern and a serious reason to see the doctor. Indications of the disease can be different, and even identical signs of an adult and a child are not always the result of the same infections or viruses.
The peculiarity of the bubbles formed on the tunica mucosa of mouth is the short term of their existence. Soon after appearing, they burst and provoke erosion. The uncovered top layer of the mucosa is exposed to various bacteria, constantly present in the oral cavity. In such a way stomatitis is triggered, causing painful feelings that disturb the patient’s rest, sleep, appetite and even the eating ability.
Bubbles on gums appearing in such a case are also called by a medical term “blisters”. A blister is a cavity element, up to 5 mm in diameter, filled by body fluid. The disease, which is characterized by the formation of blisters on the mucous membranes or non-inflamed skin, is called pemphigus. If not treated in a proper way, the pathology may cover large areas of skin and can be followed by the malignant invasion. Within the umbrella term “pemphigus” there is a number of diseases of the mucous membranes, united by similar vesicular eruptions with different indicators (presence/absence) in touch smears of acantholytic cells, including clinical and pathological anatomical characteristics. The initial symptoms are often localized in the mouth without general signs on the skin, which complicates the diagnosis and can be mistaken for another illness.
Causes and Risk Factors
Viral infections on the mucous membranes of the mouth are unpleasant and painful. Viral stomatitis usually comes as a striking factor. It is a common infection that comprises a variety of diseases caused by different viruses:
- herpes simplex;
- adenovirus and other kinds of pathogens.
Allergy, trauma, infection can result in puss bubbles on gums. Risk factors also include vitamin deficiency, gastrointestinal diseases, endocrine and cardiovascular disorders. The illness can also be triggered by blood diseases and body intoxication, mostly by heavy-metal poisoning. Bubbles on the oral mucosa may be a possible sign of severe diseases that have not fully manifested yet.
The most common sign of pemphigus is the appearance of transparent bubbles in the mouth. They are always small and can be located on cheeks, tongue, or gums. Sometimes a patient can deal with bubbles on gums between teeth. At the same time, general symptoms can be absent at all. The acute stage of the disease is usually characterized by:
- general malaise;
- slight or, in rare cases, a significant rise of temperature;
- node enlargement;
- redness and swelling in the oral cavity;
- appearance of small single or acervate bubbles;
- erosion after bubbles burst;
- lack of appetite;
- difficulty with eating;
- aching pain;
- burning, itching, unpleasant smell in the mouth.
In such a situation, three specialists can help: a dentist, a dermatologist or a therapist. Diagnosis is based on the questioning of the patient, physical examination and lab tests. The most valuable data are gathered after the examination of touch smears from the oral cavity. However, an experienced specialist is able to define the problem only by visual examination, with analysis being carried out only to confirm the primary diagnosis.
A patient can’t take good care of his health by himself. It is necessary to follow the treatment prescribed by the doctor, and this is the only right way of dealing with the disease. Yet, if the visit to the hospital is impossible due to some reasons, something must be done to relieve suffering. Soda solution or decoction of herbs will be useful to rinse the mouth. Chamomile and rosehip, which have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory qualities, are good for this purpose. Propolis tincture is another remedy of great virtue. Folk medicine can be perfectly combined with traditional one, although you should not forget to consult a doctor.
Herbal tea (especially, of antiviral plants) is recommended to eliminate swelling and inflammation. Along with this very useful flower, often found on the windowsills. Aloe or kalanchoe can be used for lotions. It is necessary to cut a small leaf of the plant or its part. After peeling it, the pulp is applied to the place of rash. After a few minutes, it is better to cut it again to re-apply the healing juice to the wounds.
It should be mentioned that bubbles in the mouth themselves do not cause complications, but without any treatment, suppuration can occur, which is a rather unpleasant phenomenon. If a patient doesn’t cure the primary disease, which triggered the appearance of blisters filled with fluid, he will deal with severe problems.
Prevention, as well as treatment, depends on the causes of the disease. Nevertheless, there are a few general rules which must be followed in any case.
- Practice good oral hygiene.
- Start treating any oral diseases in time;
- Thoroughly wash the hands with soap before eating;
- Choose the right toothbrush (which does not injure the gums);
- Enrich the diet with fresh vegetables, berries and fruits.
It is important to remember that the illness must be treated immediately without any delay!