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The human body is a single system, each element of which affects the other. If all organs and body parts are healthy, the system is in a harmonic equilibrium. But if at least one organ fails, it immediately affects the functioning of other parts of the body. Diseases of the dental or gingival tissue adversely affect the gastrointestinal tract and its activities, creating the preconditions for the emergence of very serious health problems.
That is why you should take the condition of your teeth very seriously. You should consult a specialist if there is even the slightest change. Many people do not pay attention to dark lines on teeth. Meanwhile, they can be a symptom of hypoplasia of tooth enamel, which is a serious disease.
Hypoplasia of Tooth Enamel – what Is It?
One of the bright symptoms of this disease is the appearance of longitudinal strips or spots on the teeth. Of course, you may not pay attention to this problem, but today many doctors say that problems with the chewing apparatus affect not only digestion, but also other systems of the body. So the loss of even one tooth may lead to memory deterioration, irritability and a tendency to unmotivated emotional state changes.
Unfortunately, beautiful teeth are rarely given to a person as a gift. Diseases of dental tissue and gums can originate in early childhood. Enamel hypoplasia is one of the diseases in which the hard tissues of the tooth are partially delayed in development.
Types of Tooth Enamel Hypoplasia
According to the degree of distribution, tooth enamel hypoplasia can be local, developing on one tooth, or systemic, covering the entire dentition. Pathology can affect the milk or permanent teeth. The disease develops on different tissues of the tooth, so dentists distinguish:
- enamel hypoplasia;
- hypoplasia of dentin;
- hypoplasia of cementum.
Each of them has its own manifestations, but today we will talk about enamel hypoplasia.
Enamel Hypoplasia – what Is It?
The state of underdevelopment of the outer hard shell of the tooth is called hypoplasia of its enamel. The hardest tissue of the tooth covers it with a protective shell over the entire outer surface, except for the neck and root immersed in the gum. It protects internal tissues from mechanical damage during chewing, from the action of bacteria and food acids. The state of hypoplasia is characterized by thinning of the enamel, the appearance of less protected spots. In the most severe cases, the enamel is completely absent in some areas.
Causes of Hypoplasia
Hypoplasia of tooth enamel occurs due to improper functioning of the cells responsible for the formation and growth of enamel – ameloblasts. Failures in the functioning of these cells have different causes:
- hereditary-due to genetic predisposition to this disease, when similar problems were present in parents and older relatives;
- intrauterine pathology and developmental deficiencies of the first years of life, affecting the formation and development of enamel.
The most common systemic enamel hypoplasia occurs in cases where:
- the child had a lack of vitamin D in the most critical period of tooth formation;
- during pregnancy, the mother was ill with rubella or toxoplasmosis;
- the pregnancy proceeded with severe toxemia;
- the baby was born prematurely;
- in the early period there were diseases of digestion, kidneys, thyroid gland;
- there were disorders of brain function;
- the baby has congenital syphilis;
- there is a birth trauma;
- mother took tetracycline, especially in the second half of the term.
The cause of local hypoplasia may be an inflammatory process or mechanical damage to the enamel.
The Typical Symptoms of Hypoplasia of the Enamel
Changing the color of the tooth surface and the appearance of dark lines on teeth near gums are the most characteristic features of dental hypoplasia. In this disease, the spots remain unchanged in size and shape for a long time. They are not even exposed to food dyes-a property that is the best indicator for the dentist.
Note!In addition to dark streaks on teeth, relief horizontal grooves can be formed. In severe forms of hypoplasia, enamel on teeth is completely absent.
Enamel Hypoplasia and Caries
The appearance of enamel hypoplasia in a child or adult often leads to rapid abrasion and tooth decay. Thinned regions of the enamel make it easier for micro-organisms to access to more soft dental tissues – dentin. Often several carious teeth appear in the mouth. In addition, this contributes to the pathology and other dental diseases associated with infectious lesions of pulpitis, etc. Often children have a form of malocclusion as a consequence of hypoplasia of the enamel.
How to Treat Enamel Hypoplasia?
Weakly expressed hypoplasia can disappear by itself. All you need is to pay attention to dental hygiene and provide the child with adequate nutrition. In the case where the dark stripes on teeth are clearly visible, but are only a cosmetic defect, the procedure of gentle bleaching carried out by the dentist can smooth the impression. A good effect is given by the procedure of remineralization – the introduction of missing minerals into the enamel surface. When there is caries it is necessary to seal the teeth. If the process has gone too far dental crowns may be required.