Tooth discolouration is a very unpleasant thing, especially if one takes good care of his oral cavity. It is necessary to distinguish between tooth darkening and the appearance of dental plaque on the tooth enamel. In general, teeth darken mostly because of the inflamed pulp and its removal or mummification. A non-vital tooth changes colour and sometimes differs notably from its healthy neighbours. Black stains on teeth are usually caused by two groups of factors – external and internal. The first group includes:
- drinking plenty of tea and coffee;
- wearing dental braces.
This kind of plaque is hard to remove, though it is still possible with the help of a certified dentist. Black stains on teeth from smoking and coffee can be removed while professional cleaning and bleaching. There are also advanced products sold by famous companies which specialize in oral care and protection. However, they strongly recommend using such whitening gels and rinses only under medical supervision. Being applied in a wrong way, harsh chemicals can burn oral mucosa and the tongue surface.
Sometimes if you want to straighten teeth, you may be taken aback by facing black stains on teeth from braces after taking them off. They can be the result of improper cementing to the teeth or an adhesive of bad quality. These factors lead to the poor dental hygiene, which results in contact with colouring pigments, accumulation of plaque on the teeth surface and on the elements of braces, as well as caries development under the braces.
Note!Therefore, it is important to take a good care of the oral cavity not only twice a day but also after each meal. You may need additional devices, such as brushes and pastes, the fluoride rinse, an irrigator, and orthodontic toothbrushes.
The treatment is usually based on the individual characteristics of the patient and the specific problem. The doctor cleans the teeth from cement, grinds and polishes them, prescribes the remineralizing therapy, performs bleaching and professional cleaning of teeth, seals or restores tooth enamel, and advises to take definite vitamins. Internal reasons of dark plaque on teeth comprise different malfunctions of body systems, such as:
- dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal tract;
- biliary dyskinesia;
- helminthic invasion;
- parasitic diseases, such as giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, etc.;
- intractable constipation, followed by intestinal intoxication;
- metabolic disturbance and endocrine diseases, such as diabetes, thyroid diseases, etc.;
- changes caused by long-term treatment with antibiotics, especially tetracycline;
- changes caused by chemotherapy for cancer, tuberculosis, HIV infection.
The plaque is caused by fungi, and it is incredibly difficult to clean it off since they merge into tooth enamel. Usually, even special dental procedures are useless. Nevertheless, once the illness is cured, the stains just go away.
Sometimes patients complain about black stains on teeth near gum line. This concept is called abfraction. At first, it is just painless darkening of the tooth enamel, which then develops into the loss of tooth structure. It can be caused by everything that reduces calcium in a human body, like unhealthy eating habits, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, metabolic disturbance, pregnancy, thyroid diseases, bad dental cleaning, periodontitis, gingivitis and so on. The upper part of a tooth is the most vulnerable, that’s why it suffers the first.
If abfraction is not severe, there is no need to seal it. Prevention of the disease and remineralizing therapy are more important in this case. Medications with calcium and special enamels with a high content of fluorine are prescribed. In a more difficult situation, the upper part of the tooth is sealed with a composite material. All symptoms disappear, there are no more stains and the interference is not visible.
The only problem is that the treatment must be repeated regularly, and the area to be cleaned and sealed each time enlarges. That’s why dentists recommend installing ceramic crowns on the damaged tooth. Sometimes such treatment and prosthetics are the most appropriate ways to keep the tooth vital.