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Alveolitis after tooth extraction shall mean the inflammatory process that occurs in the case of improper wound healing, which is formed in the injured hole. Signs of the disease can manifest themselves a few days after in the form of black hole after tooth extraction, unpleasant sensations which do not pass after taking the anesthetic.
Note!Alveolitis looks like an empty black hole, in the cavity of which particles of food and dead soft tissues have accumulated. Normally, a brown blood clot in the hole is formed for further healing of the wound.
Why Does the Problem Occur?
Alveolitis of the tooth is a consequence of infection of the formed wound. Factors that cause the development of the disease are:
- Destruction of the blood clot formed after removal of the tooth. It covers the wound and protects it from bacteria. If the clot is destroyed, infections can easily enter the soft tissues of the periodontium and provoke inflammation;
- injuries of the wound occurred in the process of tooth extraction (causes: plaque, fragments of the alveolar process or dental tartar got inside). Soft tissues become infected, inflammation develops;
- non-compliance with the rules of hygiene by the dentist during the treatment also can be the reason for the black hole after tooth extraction. Pus after tooth extraction is a home for a variety of bacteria, which are the sources of the inflammatory process;
- fracture of the jaw bone and detachment of the gums can also provoke symptoms of alveolitis;
- violation by the patient of the rules of care for the hole of the removed tooth. At least 2-3 days after the procedure it is strictly forbidden to use “traumatic”, hard or hot food. Do not rinse your mouth intensively with a variety of solutions. That is fraught not only with alveolitis and other unpleasant post-operative complications.
How Does Inflammation Manifests Itself?
Alveolitis after removing the wisdom tooth declares itself through intense pain in the hole. At the same time, the pain gradually increases, spreads to neighboring units and soft tissues. There is a pronounced hyperthermia (the temperature can rise to 38-39 degrees), the general state of health deteriorates sharply. There is a characteristic plaque of gray color on a dry hole after tooth extraction. Other symptoms of alveolitis are:
- unpleasant (putrid) breath;
- there is no blood clot in the hole;
- face may swell;
- the gums are hyperemic in the remote unit area;
- the presence of purulent discharge from the well.
There are several varieties of Alveolitis:
The first form of the disease is manifested by intense aching pain during meals. The patient’s health does not change. The body temperature is within normal limits. The big black hole after wisdom tooth extraction during examination either contains a partially destroyed blood clot, or it is absent at all. Food particles accumulated in the salivary fluid can be present in the wound. Nodes do not increase in size.
When the wound is festering in the area of the removed tooth, it is about the transition of serous alveolitis to the purulent one. It, in turn, is characterized by constantly present intense pain, localized along the trigeminal nerve. The course of the disease is accompanied by a characteristic putrid smell from the mouth. Patients begin to experience general weakness, malaise, there is subfebrilitate, the skin pales.
Note!There is pain when eating, the soft tissue in the affected lesion become swollen, the face swells, becomes asymmetrical, there is lymphadenitis. Because of the pain syndrome, the patient with alveolitis can not fully open his mouth.
Visual examination of the oral cavity reveals local hyperemia and swelling. There is black hole after wisdom tooth removal, a plaque of dirty gray color with a putrid smell, the remains of a blood clot in the hole. When pressing on the affected focus, the patient experiences acute pain. The alveolar process thickens on both sides of the hole.
When inflammation becomes chronic, the pain gradually subsides, hyperthermia goes away and the patient’s health is normalized. An objective examination reveals large visible granulation tissue in the injured hole. In this case, there is a space in the form of a small slit between these formations and the bone wall. The empty hole is hyperemic, edematous, the surrounding mucosa has a characteristic bluish tint.
Only a dentist knows how the hole should look after tooth extraction and can determine the presence (absence) of a pathological process in it. Treating inflammation at home is not recommended, as you can provoke even more serious complications. The diagnosis is based on:
- analysis of patient complaints;
- sets of characteristic symptoms of alveolitis;
- the results of the survey.
How to Fight the Disease?
Treatment of alveolitis after tooth extraction is quite problematic. It includes several successive stages:
- treatment of the affected area with the help of local anesthetics;
- washing the food residues, blood clot and saliva out of the empty hole with antiseptic solutions (Furatsillin, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, potassium permanganate) with a syringe and a needle with a blunt end;
- cleaning of the contents of the hole left after washing is carried out with the help of a sharp dental spoon;
- re-treatment of the wound with antiseptic compounds;
- drying the hole with a sterile cotton swab, dusting with anesthetic powder;
As a bandage, dentists can also use antiseptic tampons, a variety of pastes with antibiotics, hemostatic sponges with gentamicin. This measure allows to protect the wound from getting of stimuli into the hole, as well as from pathogens that only increase the intensity of the inflammatory process.
If the patient has characteristic symptoms indicating the possible development of alveolitis after tooth extraction and there is no possibility to consult the doctor, the first therapeutic actions can be taken at home. First thing you should do is to rinse your mouth with natural antiseptics (for example, chamomile decoction).
To avoid alveolitis after tooth extraction in a child or adult patient, it is necessary to follow the recommendations given by the dentist at the end of the procedure. Thus, it is forbidden to use rinses to relieve pain and accelerate healing.
You should not take hot food (drinks) – thermal burns can also lead to alveolitis. Do not touch the hole with your hands or anything as the risk of infection of the postoperative wound increases.
The main task of prevention is to preserve the integrity of the blood clot. The dentist, in turn, should perform the operation in compliance with all the rules, take all measures to avoid complications (in particular, it is good to compress the edges of the hole to form a blood clot).